Cross-site Scripting (XSS) Affecting foundation-sites Open this link in a new tab package, versions [,6.0.0)
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2 Aug 2017
2 Aug 2017
Introduced: 2 Aug 2017CWE-79 Open this link in a new tab
How to fix?
foundation-sites to version 6.0.0 or higher.
foundation-sites is an advanced responsive front-end framework.
Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Cross-site Scripting (XSS) attacks due to an insufficient fix to npm:foundation-sites:20150619
Thanks to Nathaniel Paulus for disclosing this vulnerability!
innerHTML does not make script tags executable, script tags are not the only way to run arbitrary code.
This vulnerability was introduced in a deliberate attempt to allow HTML in captions. The file was subsequently deleted when version 6 was merged into the develop branch in 1e08494bb2118c9786ffc33c28158311cd542bcb. Confirmation of its removal (as well as plans to re-add it) can be found in issue 7759
A cross-site scripting attack occurs when the attacker tricks a legitimate web-based application or site to accept a request as originating from a trusted source.
ֿInjecting malicious code is the most prevalent manner by which XSS is exploited; for this reason, escaping characters in order to prevent this manipulation is the top method for securing code against this vulnerability.
Escaping means that the application is coded to mark key characters, and particularly key characters included in user input, to prevent those characters from being interpreted in a dangerous context. For example, in HTML,
< can be coded as
> can be coded as
> in order to be interpreted and displayed as themselves in text, while within the code itself, they are used for HTML tags. If malicious content is injected into an application that escapes special characters and that malicious content uses
> as HTML tags, those characters are nonetheless not interpreted as HTML tags by the browser if they’ve been correctly escaped in the application code and in this way the attempted attack is diverted.
The most prominent use of XSS is to steal cookies (source: OWASP HttpOnly) and hijack user sessions, but XSS exploits have been used to expose sensitive information, enable access to privileged services and functionality and deliver malware.
Types of attacks
There are a few methods by which XSS can be manipulated:
|Stored||Server||The malicious code is inserted in the application (usually as a link) by the attacker. The code is activated every time a user clicks the link.|
|Reflected||Server||The attacker delivers a malicious link externally from the vulnerable web site application to a user. When clicked, malicious code is sent to the vulnerable web site, which reflects the attack back to the user’s browser.|
|DOM-based||Client||The attacker forces the user’s browser to render a malicious page. The data in the page itself delivers the cross-site scripting data.|
|Mutated||The attacker injects code that appears safe, but is then rewritten and modified by the browser, while parsing the markup. An example is rebalancing unclosed quotation marks or even adding quotation marks to unquoted parameters.|
Affected environmentsThe following environments are susceptible to an XSS attack:
- Web servers
- Application servers
- Web application environments
How to preventThis section describes the top best practices designed to specifically protect your code:
- Sanitize data input in an HTTP request before reflecting it back, ensuring all data is validated, filtered or escaped before echoing anything back to the user, such as the values of query parameters during searches.
- Convert special characters such as
>and spaces to their respective HTML or URL encoded equivalents.
- Give users the option to disable client-side scripts.
- Redirect invalid requests.
- Detect simultaneous logins, including those from two separate IP addresses, and invalidate those sessions.
- Use and enforce a Content Security Policy (source: Wikipedia) to disable any features that might be manipulated for an XSS attack.
- Read the documentation for any of the libraries referenced in your code to understand which elements allow for embedded HTML.
You can read more about
Cross-site Scripting (XSS) on our blog.
- March 14th, 2017 - Responsible Disclosure and PoC sent by Nathaniel Paulus.
- April 13th, 2017 - Disclosure to first contact @foundation-sites
- May 14th, 2017 - Disclosure to first and secondary contacts @foundation-sites
- June 12th, 2017 - After no response from either contact, PoC sent to both contacts.
- August 2nd, 2017 - Vulnerability made public.