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10 Aug 2016
10 Aug 2016
ActiveRecord is the Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) that comes out-of-the-box with Rails. It plays the role of Model in the MVC architecture employed by Rails.
There is a vulnerability when ActiveRecord is used in conjunction with JSON parameter parsing.
Due to the way ActiveRecord interprets parameters in combination with the way that JSON parameters are parsed, it is possible for an attacker to issue unexpected database queries with
IS NULL or empty
WHERE clauses. This issue does not let an attacker insert arbitrary values into an SQL query, however they can cause the query to check for
NULL or eliminate a
WHERE clause when most users wouldn't expect it.
For example, a system has password reset with token functionality:
unless params[:token].nil? user = User.find_by_token(params[:token]) user.reset_password! end
An attacker can craft a request such that
params[:token] will return
[nil] value will bypass the test for nil, but will still add an
IN ('xyz', NULL) clause to the SQL query.
Similarly, an attacker can craft a request such that
params[:token] will return an empty hash. An empty hash will eliminate the WHERE clause of the query, but can bypass the
Note that this impacts not only dynamic finders (
find_by_*) but also relations (
User.where(:name => params[:name])).